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戰爭對烏克蘭中文學習的影響

战争对乌克兰中文学习的影响

The impact of the war on Chinese language learning in Ukraine

Challenge

戰爭,國際,教育,政治

战争,国际,教育,政治

214 read

    2022
2022

nián

nián

N

year

HSK1
俄乌战争 É Wū zhàn zhēng
俄乌战争

É Wū zhàn zhēng

The Russo-Ukrainian War

N/A
发生 fā shēng
发生

fā shēng

V

to happen, to take place, to occur

HSK3
以前 yǐ qián
以前

yǐ qián

N

before

HSK2
乌克兰 Wū kè lán
乌克兰

Wū kè lán

Ukraine

N/A
yǒu

yǒu

V

to have;has;own

HSK1
hěn

hěn

Adv

very, quite

HSK1
duō

duō

Adj

many, much

HSK1
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

HSK1
中文 Zhōng wén
中文

Zhōng wén

N

Chinese language

HSK4
补习班 bǔ xí bān
补习班

bǔ xí bān

N

cram school

N/A
dàn

dàn

Conj

but; yet; however

N/A
随着 suí zhe
随着

suí zhe

Prep

along with

N/A
战争 zhàn zhēng
战争

zhàn zhēng

N

war

HSK4
爆发 bào fā
爆发

bào fā

V

to break out

HSK6
这个 zhè gè
这个

zhè gè

Phrase

(pronoun) this

N/A
行业 háng yè
行业

háng yè

N

industry; trade

HSK4
经历 jīng lì
经历

jīng lì

V

to experience, to go through

HSK3
le

le

Ptc

completed action

HSK2
巨变 jù biàn
巨变

jù biàn

N

great changes, tremendous changes

N/A


    zài

zài

Prep

be at, be in, be on

HSK1
基辅市 Jī fǔ shì
基辅市

Jī fǔ shì

Kyiv (also spelled Kiev) is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine

N/A
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

HSK1

Num

one

HSK1

M

classifier for people or objects in general

HSK1
住宅区 zhù zhái qū
住宅区

zhù zhái qū

Phrase

residential area; residential quarters

N/A

N

in

HSK1
yǒu

yǒu

V

to have;has;own

HSK1
suǒ

suǒ

M

classifier for houses, small buildings, institutions, etc.

HSK3
中文 Zhōng wén
中文

Zhōng wén

N

Chinese language

HSK4
补习班 bǔ xí bān
补习班

bǔ xí bān

N

cram school

N/A
补习班 bǔ xí bān
补习班

bǔ xí bān

N

cram school

N/A
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

HSK1
负责人 fù zé rén
负责人

fù zé rén

N

person in charge

HSK5
表示 biǎo shì
表示

biǎo shì

V

to show; to express

HSK2
战争 zhàn zhēng
战争

zhàn zhēng

N

war

HSK4
爆发 bào fā
爆发

bào fā

V

to break out

HSK6
之前 zhī qián
之前

zhī qián

N

before, previously, beforehand

HSK4
学生 xué shēng
学生

xué shēng

N

student

HSK1
人数 rén shù
人数

rén shù

N

number of people

HSK2
曾经 céng jīng
曾经

céng jīng

Adv

once

HSK3
高达 gāo dá
高达

gāo dá

Phrase

to reach up to; to attain

N/A
400
400

rén

rén

N

person, people

HSK1
战争 zhàn zhēng
战争

zhàn zhēng

N

war

HSK4
爆发 bào fā
爆发

bào fā

V

to break out

HSK6
hòu

hòu

N

after

HSK1
学生 xué shēng
学生

xué shēng

N

student

HSK1
数量 shù liàng
数量

shù liàng

N

quantity

HSK3
减少 jiǎn shǎo
减少

jiǎn shǎo

V

to lessen; to decrease; to reduce; to lower

HSK4
le

le

Ptc

completed action

HSK2
yuē

yuē

Adv

about

N/A
40%
40%

zhè

zhè

Pron

this, these

HSK1

Num

one

HSK1
变化 biàn huà
变化

biàn huà

N

change; variation

HSK3
可能 kě néng
可能

kě néng

V

probably, maybe, perhaps

HSK2
yǒu

yǒu

V

to have;has;own

HSK1
duō

duō

Adj

many, much

HSK1
方面 fāng miàn
方面

fāng miàn

N

in the areas of (an issue)

HSK2
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

HSK1
原因 yuán yīn
原因

yuán yīn

N

reason; cause

HSK2


    首先 shǒu xiān
首先

shǒu xiān

Adv

first of all, above all

HSK3
yǒu

yǒu

V

there is;exist

HSK1
许多 xǔ duō
许多

xǔ duō

Num

many, much, a lot of

HSK2
rén

rén

N

person, people

HSK1
离开 lí kāi
离开

lí kāi

V

to leave

HSK2
乌克兰 Wū kè lán
乌克兰

Wū kè lán

Ukraine

N/A
前往 qián wǎng
前往

qián wǎng

V

to go to; to leave for

HSK3
欧洲 Ōu zhōu
欧洲

Ōu zhōu

Europe

美国 Měi guó
美国

Měi guó

N

the United States of America (the U.S.A)

Conj

and, as well as

HSK1
加拿大 Jiā ná dà
加拿大

Jiā ná dà

Canada

děng

děng

Ptc

etc., and so on

HSK1

N

place

HSK1
改变 gǎi biàn
改变

gǎi biàn

V

to change

HSK4
le

le

Ptc

completed action

HSK2
之前 zhī qián
之前

zhī qián

N

before, previously, beforehand

HSK4
xué

xué

V

to study, to learn

HSK1
中文 Zhōng wén
中文

Zhōng wén

N

Chinese language

HSK4
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

HSK1
初衷 chū zhōng
初衷

chū zhōng

N

original intention

HSK7-9
其次 qí cì
其次

qí cì

Conj

secondly

HSK3
shì

shì

V

to be

HSK1
经济 jīng jì
经济

jīng jì

N

economy

HSK3
问题 wèn tí
问题

wèn tí

N

question, problem

HSK2
因为 yīn wèi
因为

yīn wèi

Conj

because

HSK2
战争 zhàn zhēng
战争

zhàn zhēng

N

war

HSK4
duì

duì

Prep

to

HSK1
国家 guó jiā
国家

guó jiā

N

nation, country

HSK1
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

HSK1
经济 jīng jì
经济

jīng jì

N

economy

HSK3
产生 chǎn shēng
产生

chǎn shēng

V

to bring about, to produce, to take place

HSK3
le

le

Ptc

completed action

HSK2
影响 yǐng xiǎng
影响

yǐng xiǎng

N

influence, impact

HSK2
ràng

ràng

V

to let, to make

HSK2
一些 yì xiē
一些

yì xiē

Num

some, a number of, a few

HSK1
rén

rén

N

person, people

HSK1
无法 wú fǎ
无法

wú fǎ

Adv

to be unable to

HSK4
负担 fù dān
负担

fù dān

V

to bear a burden

HSK6
学费 xué fèi
学费

xué fèi

N

tuition fee

HSK3
最后 zuì hòu
最后

zuì hòu

Adv

in the end

HSK1
有些 yǒu xiē
有些

yǒu xiē

Phrase

some

N/A
rén

rén

N

person, people

HSK1
duì

duì

Prep

to

HSK1
中国 Zhōng guó
中国

Zhōng guó

Proper Noun

China

N/A
政府 zhèng fǔ
政府

zhèng fǔ

N

government

HSK4
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

HSK1
立场 lì chǎng
立场

lì chǎng

N

position, standpoint

HSK5
感到 gǎn dào
感到

gǎn dào

V

to feel; to sense; to perceive

HSK2
困惑 kùn huò
困惑

kùn huò

Adj

bewildered, perplexed, confused

HSK7-9

Adv

not

HSK1
清楚 qīng chu
清楚

qīng chu

Adj

to be clear

HSK2
中国 Zhōng guó
中国

Zhōng guó

Proper Noun

China

N/A

Conj

and, as well as

HSK1
shéi

shéi

Pron

who, whom

HSK1
zhàn

zhàn

V

to stand

HSK1
zài

zài

Adv

be at, be in,be on

HSK1
一起 yì qǐ
一起

yì qǐ

Adv

together

HSK1


    负责人 fù zé rén
负责人

fù zé rén

N

person in charge

HSK5

Adv

also

HSK1
表示 biǎo shì
表示

biǎo shì

V

to show; to express

HSK2
战争 zhàn zhēng
战争

zhàn zhēng

N

war

HSK4
qián

qián

N

before

HSK1
学生 xué shēng
学生

xué shēng

N

student

HSK1
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

HSK1
年龄层 nián líng céng
年龄层

nián líng céng

N

age group

N/A
分布 fēn bù
分布

fēn bù

V

to be distributed(over an area); to scatter

HSK4
de

de

Ptc

used after a verb (V, Vp, Vs/Adj) linking it to following Phrase indicating effect, degree, possibility etc.

HSK1
hěn

hěn

Adv

very, quite

HSK1
平均 píng jūn
平均

píng jūn

Adj

average; on average

HSK4
yǒu

yǒu

V

there is;exist

HSK1
30%
30%

de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

HSK1
孩子 hái zi
孩子

hái zi

N

kids, child, children

HSK1
34%
34%

de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

HSK1
成人 chéng rén
成人

chéng rén

N

aldult

HSK4

Conj

and, as well as

HSK1
40%
40%

de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

HSK1
中学生 zhōng xué shēng
中学生

zhōng xué shēng

Phrase

middle-school student

N/A
一部分 yí bù fèn
一部分

yí bù fèn

Phrase

portion;part of

HSK2
学生 xué shēng
学生

xué shēng

N

student

HSK1
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

HSK1
父母 fù mǔ
父母

fù mǔ

N

parents

HSK3
原本 yuán běn
原本

yuán běn

Adv

originally

HSK7-9
计划 jì huà
计划

jì huà

V

to plan; to map out

HSK2
yào

yào

V

to want to

HSK1
ràng

ràng

V

to let, to make

HSK2
孩子 hái zi
孩子

hái zi

N

kids, child, children

HSK1

V

to go to

HSK1
中国 Zhōng guó
中国

Zhōng guó

Proper Noun

China

N/A
学习 xué xí
学习

xué xí

V

to study, to learn

HSK1
希望 xī wàng
希望

xī wàng

V

to hope, to want, to wish

HSK3
可以 kě yǐ
可以

kě yǐ

V

be able to, can

HSK2
加强 jiā qiáng
加强

jiā qiáng

V

to strengthen

HSK3
liǎng

liǎng

Num

two

HSK1
guó

guó

N

nation, country, state, kingdom

HSK1
未来 wèi lái
未来

wèi lái

N

future

N/A
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

HSK1
合作 hé zuò
合作

hé zuò

N

cooperation

HSK3
然而 rán’ér
然而

rán’ér

Conj

however

HSK4
战争 zhàn zhēng
战争

zhàn zhēng

N

war

HSK4
爆发 bào fā
爆发

bào fā

V

to break out

HSK6
hòu

hòu

N

after

HSK1
学生 xué shēng
学生

xué shēng

N

student

HSK1
zhōng

zhōng

N

in, among, admidst

N/A
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

HSK1
孩子 hái zi
孩子

hái zi

N

kids, child, children

HSK1
数量 shù liàng
数量

shù liàng

N

quantity

HSK3
大幅 dà fú
大幅

dà fú

Adv

significantly

N/A
减少 jiǎn shǎo
减少

jiǎn shǎo

V

to lessen; to decrease; to reduce; to lower

HSK4


    目前 mù qián
目前

mù qián

N

at the present time; currently

HSK5
补习班 bǔ xí bān
补习班

bǔ xí bān

N

cram school

N/A
采用 cǎi yòng
采用

cǎi yòng

V

to adopt, to employ, to use

HSK3
网课 wǎng kè
网课

wǎng kè

Phrase

online classes

N/A

Conj

and, as well as

HSK1
实体课 shí tǐ kè
实体课

shí tǐ kè

Phrase

classes in person

N/A
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

HSK1
结合 jié hé
结合

jié hé

N

combine

HSK3
yuē

yuē

Adv

about

N/A
yǒu

yǒu

V

to have;has;own

HSK1
50
50

zhì

zhì

Prep

to; until

HSK5
70
70

míng

míng

M

classifier for people

HSK2
学生 xué shēng
学生

xué shēng

N

student

HSK1
继续 jì xù
继续

jì xù

V

to go on; to continue

HSK3
参与 cān yù
参与

cān yù

V

to participate

HSK4
学习 xué xí
学习

xué xí

N

learning

HSK1
特别 tè bié
特别

tè bié

Adj

special, unique

HSK2
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

HSK1
shì

shì

V

to be

HSK1
这些 zhè xiē
这些

zhè xiē

Pron

these

HSK1
学生 xué shēng
学生

xué shēng

N

student

HSK1
并非 bìng fēi
并非

bìng fēi

Adv

it is not as expected; but not

HSK7-9
zhǐ

zhǐ

Adv

merely, only

HSK2
来自 lái zì
来自

lái zì

V

to come from (a place)

HSK2
基辅市 Jī fǔ shì
基辅市

Jī fǔ shì

Kyiv (also spelled Kiev) is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine

N/A
附近 fù jìn
附近

fù jìn

N

neatby, neighboring

HSK4
hái

hái

Adv

also, in addition to

HSK1
yǒu

yǒu

V

to have;has;own

HSK1
一些 yì xiē
一些

yì xiē

Num

some, a number of, a few

HSK1
学生 xué shēng
学生

xué shēng

N

student

HSK1
zhù

zhù

V

to reside, to dwell, to stay, to live

HSK1
zài

zài

Prep

be at, be in, be on

HSK1
美国 Měi guó
美国

Měi guó

N

the United States of America (the U.S.A)

加拿大 Jiā ná dà
加拿大

Jiā ná dà

Canada

Conj

and, as well as

HSK1
欧洲 Ōu zhōu
欧洲

Ōu zhōu

Europe

děng

děng

Ptc

etc., and so on

HSK1

N

place

HSK1


    负责人 fù zé rén
负责人

fù zé rén

N

person in charge

HSK5

Adv

also

HSK1
提到 tí dào
提到

tí dào

Phrase

to mention, to raise (a subject), to refer to

HSK2
le

le

Ptc

completed action

HSK2
一些 yì xiē
一些

yì xiē

Num

some, a number of, a few

HSK1
学生 xué shēng
学生

xué shēng

N

student

HSK1
不再 bú zài
不再

bú zài

Phrase

no more; no longer

HSK6
学习 xué xí
学习

xué xí

V

to study, to learn

HSK1
中文 Zhōng wén
中文

Zhōng wén

N

Chinese language

HSK4
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

HSK1
原因 yuán yīn
原因

yuán yīn

N

reason; cause

HSK2
包括 bāo kuò
包括

bāo kuò

V

to include

HSK4
duì

duì

Prep

with regard to, concerning

HSK1
中国 Zhōng guó
中国

Zhōng guó

Proper Noun

China

N/A
支持 zhī chí
支持

zhī chí

V

to support

HSK3
俄罗斯 É luó sī
俄罗斯

É luó sī

Russia

de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

HSK1
疑虑 yí lǜ
疑虑

yí lǜ

N

hesitation, misgivings, doubt

HSK7-9

Conj

and, as well as

HSK1
duì

duì

Prep

with regard to, concerning

HSK1
中国 Zhōng guó
中国

Zhōng guó

Proper Noun

China

N/A
政府 zhèng fǔ
政府

zhèng fǔ

N

government

HSK4
意图 yì tú
意图

yì tú

N

intention

HSK7-9
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

HSK1
担忧 dān yōu
担忧

dān yōu

V

to worry about, to be concerned

HSK6
然而 rán’ér
然而

rán’ér

Conj

however

HSK4
他们 tā men
他们

tā men

Pron

they, them

HSK1
zhèng

zhèng

Adv

during the process of

HSK1
试图 shì tú
试图

shì tú

V

to attempt to

N/A
ràng

ràng

V

to let, to make

HSK2
学生 xué shēng
学生

xué shēng

N

student

HSK1
理解 lǐ jiě
理解

lǐ jiě

V

to understand, to comprehend

HSK3
liǎng

liǎng

Num

two

HSK1
guó

guó

N

nation, country, state, kingdom

HSK1
人民 rén mín
人民

rén mín

N

people

HSK3
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

HSK1
不同 bù tóng
不同

bù tóng

N

difference

HSK2
bìng

bìng

Conj

moreover, and, besides, furthermore

HSK3
继续 jì xù
继续

jì xù

V

to go on; to continue

HSK3
学习 xué xí
学习

xué xí

V

to study, to learn

HSK1
中文 Zhōng wén
中文

Zhōng wén

N

Chinese language

HSK4


    俄乌战争 É Wū zhàn zhēng
俄乌战争

É Wū zhàn zhēng

The Russo-Ukrainian War

N/A
不但 bú dàn
不但

bú dàn

Conj

not only

HSK2
影响 yǐng xiǎng
影响

yǐng xiǎng

V

to affect

HSK2
le

le

Ptc

completed action

HSK2
乌克兰 Wū kè lán
乌克兰

Wū kè lán

Ukraine

N/A
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

HSK1
中文 Zhōng wén
中文

Zhōng wén

N

Chinese language

HSK4
学习 xué xí
学习

xué xí

N

learning

HSK1

Adv

also

HSK1
改变 gǎi biàn
改变

gǎi biàn

V

to change

HSK4
le

le

Ptc

completed action

HSK2
一些 yì xiē
一些

yì xiē

Num

some, a number of, a few

HSK1
乌克兰 Wū kè lán
乌克兰

Wū kè lán

Ukraine

N/A
人民 rén mín
人民

rén mín

N

people

HSK3
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

HSK1
语言 yǔ yán
语言

yǔ yán

N

language

HSK2
使用 shĭ yòng
使用

shĭ yòng

N

use

HSK2
补习班 bǔ xí bān
补习班

bǔ xí bān

N

cram school

N/A
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

HSK1
负责人 fù zé rén
负责人

fù zé rén

N

person in charge

HSK5

Conj

and, as well as

HSK1

Pron

he, him

HSK1
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

HSK1
家人 jiā rén
家人

jiā rén

N

family members

HSK1
jiù

jiù

Adv

precisely, exactly

HSK1
cóng

cóng

Prep

from

HSK1
jiǎng

jiǎng

V

to talk

HSK2
俄语 É yǔ
俄语

É yǔ

Russian (language)

转变 zhuǎn biàn
转变

zhuǎn biàn

V

to change

HSK3
wéi

wéi

Prep

into

N/A
jiǎng

jiǎng

V

to talk

HSK2
乌克兰语 Wū kè lán yǔ
乌克兰语

Wū kè lán yǔ

Ukrainian(language)

Adv

also

HSK1
不再 bú zài
不再

bú zài

Phrase

no more; no longer

HSK6
教授 jiào shòu
教授

jiào shòu

V

to instruct; to teach

HSK4
俄语 É yǔ
俄语

É yǔ

Russian (language)

Before the outbreak of the Russo-Ukrainian War in 2022, Ukraine had numerous Chinese language tutoring centers, but with the eruption of the conflict, this industry underwent significant changes.

In a residential area in Kyiv, there was a Chinese language tutoring center where the manager stated that before the war, the number of students reached as high as 400, but after the outbreak of the conflict, the number of students decreased by about 40%. There could be several reasons for this change.

Firstly, many people left Ukraine for Europe, the United States, Canada, and other places, altering their initial intent to learn Chinese. Secondly, there were economic issues because the war had an impact on the country's economy, making it difficult for some people to afford tuition fees. Lastly, some people felt confused about China's stance, unsure of which side China was supporting.

The manager also mentioned that before the war, the age distribution of students was quite even, with 30% children, 34% adults, and 40% high school students. Some parents had originally planned to send their children to study in China, hoping to strengthen future cooperation between the two countries. However, after the outbreak of the war, the number of children among the students decreased significantly.

Currently, the tutoring center employs a combination of online and offline classes, with about 50 to 70 students continuing their studies. Interestingly, these students are not only from the vicinity of Kyiv but also from the United States, Canada, Europe, and other places.

The manager also mentioned some reasons why some students stopped learning Chinese, including concerns about China's support for Russia and worries about the intentions of the Chinese government. However, they are trying to help students understand the differences between the two peoples and continue learning Chinese.

The Russo-Ukrainian War has not only affected Chinese language learning in Ukraine but has also changed the language usage of some Ukrainians. The manager of the tutoring center and his family have transitioned from speaking Russian to speaking Ukrainian and no longer teach Russian.

Keyword

根据文章,乌俄战争爆发后,为什么学中文的人少了很多?

根据文章,目前这所补习班采用什么方式来进行学习?学生来自什么地方?

你学习过哪些其他语言?你觉得学习其他语言对你有什么好处?

你喜欢/不喜欢学习中文?为什么?

如果你是文章里中文补习班的负责人,你会怎么让学生理解中乌两国人民的不同,并继续学习中文?

如果你是文章里中文补习班的负责人,在战争后你认为补习班应该怎么面对变化?

当你遇到改变你生活的事情时,你是怎么应对这些改变的?请举一个例子说明。

Start Practice
    2022
2022

nián

nián

N

year

TOCFL1
烏俄戰爭 Wū É zhàn zhēng
烏俄戰爭

Wū É zhàn zhēng

The Russo-Ukrainian War

N/A
發生 fā shēng
發生

fā shēng

Vp

to happen, to take place, to occur

TOCFL3
以前 yǐ qián
以前

yǐ qián

N

before

TOCFL1
烏克蘭 Wū kè lán
烏克蘭

Wū kè lán

Ukraine

N/A
yǒu

yǒu

Vst

to have;has;own

TOCFL1
hěn

hěn

Adv

very, quite

TOCFL1
duō

duō

Vs/Adj

many, much

TOCFL1
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

TOCFL1
中文 Zhōng wén
中文

Zhōng wén

N

Chinese language

TOCFL1
補習班 bǔ xí bān
補習班

bǔ xí bān

N

cram school

TOCFL4
dàn

dàn

Conj

but; yet; however

TOCFL2
隨著 suí zhe
隨著

suí zhe

Prep

along with

TOCFL5
戰爭 zhàn zhēng
戰爭

zhàn zhēng

N

war

TOCFL4
爆發 bào fā
爆發

bào fā

V

to break out

TOCFL5
這個 zhè ge
這個

zhè ge

Phrase

(pronoun) this

N/A
行業 háng yè
行業

háng yè

N

industry; trade

TOCFL5
經歷 jīng lì
經歷

jīng lì

V

to experience, to go through

TOCFL5
le

le

Ptc

completed action

TOCFL2
巨變 jù biàn
巨變

jù biàn

N

great changes, tremendous changes

N/A


    zài

zài

Prep

be at, be in, be on

TOCFL1
基輔市 Jī fǔ shì
基輔市

Jī fǔ shì

Kyiv (also spelled Kiev) is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine

N/A
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

TOCFL1

N

one

TOCFL1
ge

ge

M

classifier for people or objects in general

TOCFL1
住宅區 zhù zhái qū
住宅區

zhù zhái qū

Phrase

residential area; residential quarters

N/A

N

in

TOCFL1
yǒu

yǒu

Vst

to have;has;own

TOCFL1
suǒ

suǒ

M

classifier for houses, small buildings, institutions, etc.

TOCFL2
中文 Zhōng wén
中文

Zhōng wén

N

Chinese language

TOCFL1
補習班 bǔ xí bān
補習班

bǔ xí bān

N

cram school

TOCFL4
補習班 bǔ xí bān
補習班

bǔ xí bān

N

cram school

TOCFL4
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

TOCFL1
負責人 fù zé rén
負責人

fù zé rén

N

person in charge

N/A
表示 biǎo shì
表示

biǎo shì

V

to show; to express

TOCFL4
戰爭 zhàn zhēng
戰爭

zhàn zhēng

N

war

TOCFL4
爆發 bào fā
爆發

bào fā

V

to break out

TOCFL5
之前 zhī qián
之前

zhī qián

N

before, previously, beforehand

TOCFL4
學生 xué shēng
學生

xué shēng

N

student

TOCFL1
人數 rén shù
人數

rén shù

N

number of people

TOCFL4
曾經 céng jīng
曾經

céng jīng

Adv

once

TOCFL4
高達 gāo dá
高達

gāo dá

Phrase

to reach up to; to attain

N/A
400
400

rén

rén

N

person, people

TOCFL1
戰爭 zhàn zhēng
戰爭

zhàn zhēng

N

war

TOCFL4
爆發 bào fā
爆發

bào fā

V

to break out

TOCFL5
hòu

hòu

N

after

TOCFL1
學生 xué shēng
學生

xué shēng

N

student

TOCFL1
數量 shù liàng
數量

shù liàng

N

quantity

TOCFL4
減少 jiǎn shǎo
減少

jiǎn shǎo

V

to lessen; to decrease; to reduce; to lower

TOCFL4
le

le

Ptc

completed action

TOCFL2
yuē

yuē

Adv

about

TOCFL4
40%
40%

zhè

zhè

Det

this, these

TOCFL1

N

one

TOCFL1
變化 biàn huà
變化

biàn huà

N

change; variation

TOCFL4
可能 kě néng
可能

kě néng

Vaux

probably, maybe, perhaps

TOCFL1
yǒu

yǒu

Vst

to have;has;own

TOCFL1
duō

duō

Vs/Adj

many, much

TOCFL1
方面 fāng miàn
方面

fāng miàn

N

in the areas of (an issue)

TOCFL3
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

TOCFL1
原因 yuán yīn
原因

yuán yīn

N

reason; cause

TOCFL3


    首先 shǒu xiān
首先

shǒu xiān

Adv

first of all, above all

TOCFL4
yǒu

yǒu

Vst

there is;exist

TOCFL1
許多 xǔ duō
許多

xǔ duō

Det

many, much, a lot of

TOCFL3
rén

rén

N

person, people

TOCFL1
離開 lí kāi
離開

lí kāi

Vp

to leave

TOCFL2
烏克蘭 Wū kè lán
烏克蘭

Wū kè lán

Ukraine

N/A
前往 qián wǎng
前往

qián wǎng

V

to go to; to leave for

TOCFL5
歐洲 Ōu zhōu
歐洲

Ōu zhōu

Europe

美國 Měi guó
美國

Měi guó

N

the United States of America (the U.S.A)

hàn

hàn

Conj

and, as well as

TOCFL1
加拿大 Jiā ná dà
加拿大

Jiā ná dà

Canada

děng

děng

Ptc

etc., and so on

TOCFL3

N

place

TOCFL2
改變 gǎi biàn
改變

gǎi biàn

V

to change

TOCFL4
le

le

Ptc

completed action

TOCFL2
之前 zhī qián
之前

zhī qián

N

before, previously, beforehand

TOCFL4
xué

xué

V

to study, to learn

TOCFL1
中文 Zhōng wén
中文

Zhōng wén

N

Chinese language

TOCFL1
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

TOCFL1
初衷 chū zhōng
初衷

chū zhōng

N

original intention

TOCFL7
其次 qí cì
其次

qí cì

Conj

secondly

TOCFL5
shì

shì

Vst

to be

TOCFL1
經濟 jīng jì
經濟

jīng jì

N

economy

TOCFL4
問題 wèn tí
問題

wèn tí

N

question, problem

TOCFL1
因為 yīn wèi
因為

yīn wèi

Conj

because

TOCFL1
戰爭 zhàn zhēng
戰爭

zhàn zhēng

N

war

TOCFL4
duì

duì

Prep

to

TOCFL1
國家 guó jiā
國家

guó jiā

N

nation, country

TOCFL1
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

TOCFL1
經濟 jīng jì
經濟

jīng jì

N

economy

TOCFL4
產生 chǎn shēng
產生

chǎn shēng

Vp

to bring about, to produce, to take place

TOCFL4
le

le

Ptc

completed action

TOCFL2
影響 yǐng xiǎng
影響

yǐng xiǎng

N

influence, impact

TOCFL3
ràng

ràng

V

to let, to make

TOCFL2
一些 yì xiē
一些

yì xiē

Phrase

some, a number of, a few

TOCFL1
rén

rén

N

person, people

TOCFL1
無法 wú fǎ
無法

wú fǎ

Adv

to be unable to

TOCFL5
負擔 fù dān
負擔

fù dān

V

to bear a burden

TOCFL5
學費 xué fèi
學費

xué fèi

N

tuition fee

TOCFL4
最後 zuì hòu
最後

zuì hòu

Adv

in the end

TOCFL2
有些 yǒu xiē
有些

yǒu xiē

Det

some

N/A
rén

rén

N

person, people

TOCFL1
duì

duì

Prep

to

TOCFL1
中國 Zhōng guó
中國

Zhōng guó

Proper Noun

China

N/A
政府 zhèng fǔ
政府

zhèng fǔ

N

government

TOCFL4
de

de

Ptc

modifier marker

TOCFL1
立場 lì chǎng
立場

lì chǎng

N

position, standpoint

TOCFL5
感到 gǎn dào
感到

gǎn dào

Phrase

to feel; to sense; to perceive

TOCFL4
困惑 kùn huò
困惑

kùn huò

Vs/Adj

bewildered, perplexed, confused

TOCFL6

Adv

not

TOCFL1
清楚 qīng chǔ
清楚

qīng chǔ

Vs/Adj

to be clear

TOCFL2
中國 Zhōng guó
中國

Zhōng guó

Proper Noun

China

N/A
hàn

hàn

Conj

and, as well as

TOCFL1
shéi

shéi

N

who, whom

TOCFL1
zhàn

zhàn

Vi

to stand

TOCFL1
zài

zài

Adv

be at, be in,be on

TOCFL1
一起 yì qǐ
一起

yì qǐ

Adv

together

TOCFL1


    負責人 fù zé rén
負責人

fù zé rén

N

person in charge

N/A